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Previously, voting for general and local elections is done by electors with voting papers and voting boxes in which the voting papers are placed. This method reveals some kinds of negative situations. Not been able to determine which party the stamp belongs to, the probability of placing the voting papers in wrong box, problems with counting the votes, loss of time when there happens to be some objections, paper printing and expenditures done for personel are some of the disadvatages of classical election system. The secret ballot is a fundamental instrument for protecting the freedom of choice of voters. For this reason, it is necessary to use new technologies for making the election system more trustable, economic and faster.
Electronic election system is set into use in some countries, especially in USA and Europe, at the beginning of nineties as a result of innovating technology and it became more trustable by improving itself at the present day. Electronic voting is an activity of realising the voting in electronic environment. Electronic election is a system which enables fast counting by electronic voting.
Electronic voting is used in some countries in the world and there are also studies about it (Babu and Padmavathamma, 2006; El-qawasmeh and Owais, 2010;
Folorunso et al., 2005; Hajjar et al., 2006). Electronic voting is used for parliamentary elections in Australia in 2001 (Schoen and Faas, 2005), for student union elections in Austria in 2003 (Prosser et al., 2003), for municipal elections in Canada in 2003 (Nakhaie, 2006), for both general and local elections in India in 2003 (Gorla, 2009). As a result of developments on information technologies in recent years, public opinion polls and nation-wide general elections will be realized faster and more effectively on electronic environment.
Nowadays, security problems are experienced with the fast developing technology. Besides developing the system, there are also so many studies and new methods for solving the security problems of the developing system. As a result of developing technology, individual password is started to be used to meet the security requirements. In time, new methods are developed and card technologies are used due to closing the security holes about burglary of the cards or forgetting the individual passwords. Usage of the ID cards and Private Identification Numbers (PIN) become widespread at card technologies (Sonkamble et al., 2010; Alkan and Bulut, 2010). Researches on security and identification operations according to physical characteristics are realized due to limitations of this technology in time.
Biometric systems are the methods which make identification of people according to their physical characteristics. Biometric methods consist of fingerprint, face, hand shape, retina, iris, and voice track methods (Sonkamble et al., 2010; Kadry and Smaili, 2010; Razzak et al., 2010). These methods may be used alone or together in the developed systems.
Fingerprint recognition method and ID system in biometric methods are frequently preferred because applications of them are easy and low-cost (Maltoni et al., 2009). Fingerprint recognition system is the leading method because everyone has different fingerprints, can not be changed easily and probability of loosing, forgeting and stealing of it is impossible. Besides, every finger has distinctive characteristics because fingerprints of every finger of a person are different (Altun et al., 2008).
For this reason, fingerprint method is used mostly alone or together with other biometric methods for providing security of the systems. Fingerprint method is also used for identification of the internet applications.
In this study, biometric authentication system is aimed instead of traditional election systems. By developing the deficiencies of the present system, biometric based election system has been developed.
1.1 Background of the Study
Voting theory formally began in the 18th century and ever since, many proposal has been made towards using electronic technologies to improve elections (Sobia, Ummer, Ayesha, Usman, and Hassan, 2011). One of the essential features of democracy is Election, democracy encourages individual’s freedom with respect to the rule of law, so that individuals can express their opinion the way they wish, giving individuals the opportunity to decide their leaders, and uninhibitedly express their feelings on issues. Because of the All-inclusive Affirmation of Human Rights in the year 1948 that puts import on compelling circumstance of free elections, countries focused on an improved and new voting process that are of significance to the election processes in the 21st century (Salomonsen, 2005).
Election is the process that enables individuals to choose their delegates and express their fellings on the way they will be administered (Kohno, Rubin, Stubblefield & Wallach, 2003), (Malkawi, Khasawneh & Al-Jarrah, 2009) and (Ashok & Ummal, 2011).
Nigerian election process has been done manually (voting for local and general elections done by electors with ballot papers and ballot boxes in which the papers are placed) since returned to democratic rule in the year 1999, the manual voting process was associated with a lot of problems and always resulted to post-election violence (Yekini, Oyeyinka, Oludipe & Lawal, 2012).
In the Federal republic of Nigeria, voting system is of two main categories, Manual Voting System (MVS) and Electronic Voting System (EVS).
The Manual Voting System (MVS) involves presenting eligible citizen with a list of contestants on a paper called ballot paper, to mark against their favorite contestants and place the ballot paper in a box called ballot box, this system of voting is used for senatorial and governorship election processes in the country. Manual voting system has some disadvantages, which include possibility of placing the ballot paper in the wrong ballot box, votes counting problem, loss of time when there happens to be some objections, paper printing and expenditures done for personnel, for these reasons, it is necessary to use the new technologies to make the election system faster, economic and trustable because the trust that every vote will be tallied and recorded correctly is the foundation of a genuine democracy (Ademand & Metin, 2011).
The Electronic Voting System (EVS) involves presenting eligible citizen with a list of contestants on a computer, to select against their favorite contestants, this system of voting is used for presidential election in the country. The improvement of information and communications technologies has allow for a completely computerised election process whereby counting of vote are carried out in real time, that the results are automatically out by the end of elections day (Rubin, 2002).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
With advances in information and communication technology, issue of security has gone far beyond ordinary password usage. This project sought to describe the biometric authentication system, as an improved solution to the existing voting system of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The existing system is however subjected to possible loss of card, failure to card verification, and unguaranteed voter’s presence at the point and time of election. Furthermore, the EVS existing system is used for the presidential election, while manual voting system of ballot paper and ballot box is used for senatorial and governorship elections.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
This project aimed at the development of a windows application for the design and implementation of a biometrics authentication system for voters and voting process, with an embedded fingerprint, for user’s authentication to the system.
The following are the objectives of this study:
- To study the existing voting method use for election in the country for senatorial and governorship candidates in elections process.
- To design a robust and secured system of voting using fingerprint biometric authentication recognition process.
- To implement biometrics system form voters and voting process in the country for senatorial election.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The significance of this project are to improve confidentiality, integrity and voter’s identification in voting process, to reduce the time and stress of conducting manual election (senatorial and governorship), and to provide equal level of security at the election ground.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This project is purposely designed for the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) election in the Federal Republic of Nigeria to overcome the problem of illegal activities during election, by making sure only eligible voters have access to the system, immediately outputting the results of the election, and ensuring that voters have trust in the process of election. However, this system can be extended to other electoral system with little or no modifications.
1.6 Limitations of the Study
Despite all the significance of this project, it is also subjected to some limitations, which includes the fact that it’s a desktop application, it cannot be used by the citizens at their convenience but has to come to the pull for the election, and only a fingerprint reader from Digital persona Inc. can be used for the enrollment and verification of user to the system.
1.7 Definition of Term
EVS – On line electronic voting system
E-voting – Electronic Voting
INEC – Independent National Electoral Commission
EVR – Electronic Voter Register
PU – Polling Unit
ICT- Information and communication Technology
ECIL- Federal Election Commission
ES & S – Election systems & software
VVPAT- vote verifiable paper audit trails
PEB- Personal Electronic Ballot
PIN- Personal Identity Number
MBB- Mobile Ballot Box
JBC- judges Booth Controller
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This research work is to develop an expert system for human nutritional analysis diagnosis which will be developed in C++ using a service-oriented architecture. The software is an expert system with a database containing an expert knowledge. The system runs on computer devices (laptop, desktop) and offers smart features that evaluate the nutritional condition of an individual by assessing their physical characteristics and eating habits. We explain the knowledge engineering process used to develop the system, overview the system architecture and selected design tools, and summarize some preliminary results from the implementation
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Products are created by brand owners and handed to third parties (contract manufacturer, shipping company, distributor…) for delivery to merchants for later sale to consumers. These products can range from commodity items (e.g., flour) to limited quantity “luxury” items (e.g., designer handbags) to one-of-a-kind items (e.g., original artwork). Counterfeit products are often created and sold as the “real thing.” Counterfeits leverage the original brand but generally have less overhead due to some combination of lower quality, reduced marketing expenses, reduced support costs and/or reduced corporate expenses (ranging from lower labor costs to failure to pay tariffs).
The three main parties (brand owner, merchant and consumer) are affected differently by the distribution of counterfeits. Consumers either willingly purchase counterfeits at a lower cost or are tricked into buying a counterfeit thinking they are getting authentic merchandise. In the former case they are generally happy, at least initially. The latter case, in some instances, may have little effect, i.e., the consumer may have overpaid for an item. However, more damaging effects may be realized if the product malfunctions. These effects can range from lack of recourse (since the product is not covered by the warranty of the brand owner or manufacturer) to physical harm in the case of food, prescription drugs, mechanical equipment, etc. Merchants and third parties may unknowingly or willingly participate in the distribution of counterfeit products. Brand owners suffer both hard (decreased profit) and soft (brand erosion) losses from counterfeit products.
This research work describes a system that enables brand owners, merchants and consumers to verify the authenticity of a product. It analyzes the different avenues of attack and presents three potential implementations of the system based upon the motivation of the participants and the cost of implementation. The research assumes the reader is acquainted with the production and distribution of counterfeit products.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The major and core issue that gave rise to this research work, is on the fact that most of the pharmaceutical drug users seek to use original product but because fake of counterfeit drugs now, do not let one differentiate from the original anymore, and the process of verifying a product currently is not encouraging because it will take much time and before then, the ill person is supposed to take his medication, which is to say that the verification process is slow and not reliable as sometimes you don’t get thee feedback at all. This issue is what the research seek to resolve by developing a secure and reliable system that can function better than the previous one.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The basic objective of the project is to provide simpler means to the consumer and regulatory agencies for establishing drug authentication and protect the consumers’ health and life safety. In achieving the objective, following goals have been set:
Web based portal enabling the citizens to check the authenticity of the drugs online, and the existence of pharmaceutical company in the country.
Tracking and tracing of the drug where manufactured to ensure the reliable supply of drugs to consumers for patient safety and brand protection of manufacturer as well as nation,
The information like Name of Drug, Name of Manufacturer, Batch number, Date of manufacturing, Date of expiry, Usage of drug (optional) and Composition of drug (optional), to be provided online to the consumer,
Provide necessary support to the regulatory agencies in prevention of counterfeiting, fraud and illegal sale of drugs.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study will present in a precise manner, the importance of drugs validity and authenticity to our health. It is believed that if this research wok in full implemented will help reduce the rate of counterfeit in drugs production and uses among individual. It is also expected that the study will benefit the manufacturers of this drugs that is the original company and industry because they will have more sales as the citizens will go for the original one and the fake will have no sales in the market anymore.
The software developed from this study will be useful to the end users or the customers in helping them to verify the drugs they buy for medication. It is expected that the findings will expose the fake drug sellers in the market and they production companies. By this exposure, the pharmaceutical industry will learn more and stand by manufacturing quality products. It is possible that by this outcome the fake pharmaceutical industries will realistically adjust to the standard of production approved by the world Health Organization (WHO).
Subsequently, it will go a long way to enhance the computer science students’ effectiveness in the society by being capable of carrying out what they have learned, thereby contributing to the building up of the society at the local, national and international levels.
The research will also be beneficial to the researcher. This is because the study will expose the researcher to so many related areas in the course of carrying out his research. This will enhance the researcher’s experience, knowledge and understanding on real live application and solution solving techniques.
1.5 Scope of the study
The Drug verification system and authentication system project is an initiative of the researcher to ensure the genuineness and authenticity of the drugs used within the country imported from any part of the country to ours (Nigeria) basically imported from India and for citizens in the domestic market. The project covers all the drugs sold in our country Nigeria.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
The challenges of implementing this system and its cost are details below.
- a) Diversity of Pharmaceutical Industry
Nigerian Pharmaceutical drugs comes mostly from the Indian Pharma industry, having more than 20,000 registered units which are highly fragmented with severe price competition and government price control. There are approximately 250 large units and more than 8,000 small and medium scale units, which form the core of the Pharmaceutical industry in India. The large units are highly qualified technically as well as professionally. On the other hand, the medium and small manufacturers will not afford to implement this system a drug verification information system (DVI system). So this will be a core challenge to the implementation of this system.
- b) Implementation of method for unique identification of the product
There are various active and passive technologies available like RFID, 1D or 2D Bar Codes, Hologram, Forensic taggants – Optical taggants , Micro-particle taggants (nano taggants) etc. To implement a robust and effective solution to achieve both objectives ‘Drug Authentication’ and ‘Verification’, there was a need of globally accepted solution for uniquely identification of the product which is easily accessible, less space consuming for printing and cost effective for its all three levels of packaging namely Primary, Secondary and Tertiary. Primary is the package which is in direct physical contact with the active ingredient, Secondary is the carton containing one or more primary packs including a mono carton containing one primary pack and Tertiary means a shipper containing one or more secondary packs.
- c) Financial Implications and over heads for the manufacturers
The financial implications and investment for the implementation of the system was major concern of the Pharma Industry specially for small and medium scale manufacturers in the country.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Database: A collection of logically related data to meet the information need of organization.
Web: Online platform for accessing of web pages/information.
DBMS: Database Management Software that enable the user to define, maintain Control the database.
Application Program; A computer program that interacts with the database.
MENU: This is a list of options presented on the screen with each option identified by short code followed by longer description of its purposes.
Drug: It is referred to as a medicine or chemical substances that are administered to Patients for curative measures.
Pharmacy: A placed in a hospital where medicine or chemical substances are kept, stored and prepared.
Flowchart: A diagram that shows connection between the different stages of process of the system.
Relation; A relation is a named table with columns and rows Attribute; An attributes is a named column of a relation Domain; A set of allowable values for one or more table
Database design: The process of creating a design that will support emprise mission statement and mission required database e system.
Software: These are program for computer which allows certain specific task to be accomplished e.g. word process etc.
Hardware: Computer equipment used to perform input processing and system output activates.
Management information system: collection of people, database, and devices produced to use in providing routine information to manager and decision makers of the organization.
THE CONTRIBUTION OF ELECTRONIC BANKING TO BANKS PROFITABILITY AND SERVICE DELIVERY.A CASE STUDY OF DIAMOND BANK BENUE NIGERIA₦3,000.00
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Electronic banking is changing the face of banking within the last decade. The aim of the study was to examine e-banking?s contribution to profitability and service delivery of Diamond Bank Benue Limited. In achieving the aim of the study, the following objectives were espoused: Ascertain the electronic banking services offered by FBL; Examine the contributions of e-banking to FBL?s profitability; Assess if the provision of these services has affected the service delivery of FBL; and Understand the challenges faced by FBL in the introduction of electronic banking services. The population comprises of all the branches of Diamond Bank Limited. In selecting the respondents, both purposive and stratified random samplings were used. The purposive sampling was adopted to select managers who are in charge of electronic banking.